Silicon in the periodic system
The electron configuration of the silicon atom
In a silicon crystal four uniform (the same shape and energy level) molecular orbitals called sp3 are formed as a result of the mixing of three atomic orbits on the p sub-shell and one atomic orbit on the s sub-shell of the outer shell of the silicon atom. The energy level of this orbit is higher than that of the s atomic orbits but lower than that of the p orbits. An energetically favourable state will be formed. The name of the process is hybridisation (mixing).
As a result of the hybridisation process, silicon in the Si-crystal will have four valences, thus each Si atomic nucleus will form four single covalent bonds with four other neighbouring Si nuclear cores in a tetrahedral arrangement.
Molecular orbitals around the silicon cores are also situated in a tetrahedral arrangement.
Key statementsSilicon crystals have a tetrahedral atomic lattice structure, like diamonds. The crystal is held together by strong covalent bonds.
The 2D model of the silicon crystal in the normal energy level
The simplest and most common compound of silica is SiO2.
Some of them: quartz, amethyst, citrine, topaz, onix, agate, jasper, chalcedony, opal